Why Alternatives to Animals

Ethical and Regulatory Concerns

A world-wide growing concern on using animals in research. Complete ban on use of animals for cosmeceutical research. In-vitro studies using human derived 2D & 3D models are being preferred as first line studies.

Translational Gaps

Many candidate drugs (>80%) fail during phase III clinical trials despite the positive outcomes in preclinical research in animals. Technological Advances including Human derived 3D cell, disease-on-a-dish and microfluidics models are increasingly utilized to reduce the number of animals used in preclinical research.

Alternatives to Animals (1980 till date)

1900 's
Available Models
  • Purified Enzymes
  • Sub-cellular Fractions
Advantages
  • Phenotypic Characterization
  • Specificity
  • Sensitivity
1900 's
Available Models
  • 2D Cells & Tissues
  • Recombinant Enzymes
Advantages
  • Understand Mechanisms
  • Pathway Elucidation
  • Feedback Regulation
1990 's
Available Models
  • 3D Cells & Tissues
  • Regenerative Stem Cells
Advantages
  • Cell-Cell Communication
  • Multiple Target Identification in Pharmacology & Toxicology
1990 +
Available Models
  • Microfluidics
Advantages
  • Multiple Organ Interactions
  • Plieotropic Effects
  • Clinically Relevant